References

“Hunger, Meat, and the Banality of Evil”

Full end notes and references from: Moncrief, Dawn, “Hunger, Meat, and the Banality of Evil,” Circles of Compassion: Connecting Issues of Justice. Vegan Pulishers, 2014.

Partial adapted excerpt of printed chapter, for AWFW web page: Global Hunger.


  1. The term “meat” is sometimes used as a shorthand for animal-derived foods: meat, dairy, and eggs.
  2. Delgado, Christopher et al, “Livestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution.” International Food Policy Research Institute, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, and International Livestock Research Institute, 1999. www.ifpri.org/publication/livestock-2020
  3. Ibid., p. 65.
  4. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013: The multiple dimensions of food security.” 2013, p. 8. www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3434e/i3434e.pdf
  5. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, “The State of Food Insecurity 2012: Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition.” 2012, p. 55. www.fao.org/docrep/016/i3027e/i3027e.pdf
  6. Enough Food for Everyone IF, “The Need for UK Action on Global Hunger.” January 23, 2013, p.6. www.enoughfoodif.org/sites/default/files/IF_policy_report.PDF
  7. Compassion in World Farming, “Strategic Plan 2013-2017: For Kinder, Fairer Farming Worldwide.” 2013, p. 3. www.ciwf.org.uk/includes/documents/cm_docs/2013/c/ciwf_strategic_plan_20132017.pdf
  8. Steinfeld, Henning et al, “Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the Livestock Environment and Development Initiative, November 2006, p. XX. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.HTM
  9. Fish Feel, “Overview,” accessed 2014. www.fishfeel.org
  10. The Humane Society of the United States, “Farm Animal Statistics Slaughter Total for 2013,” accessed 2014. http://www.humanesociety.org/news/resources/research/stats_slaughter_totals.html
  11. Lappé, Frances Moore et al, “How We Count Hunger Matters.” Ethics & International Affairs. Cambridge University Press, July 9, 2013, p. 3. www.ethicsandinternationalaffairs.org/2013/how-we-count-hunger-matters
  12. Arendt, Hannah, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. The Viking Press, 1963.
  13. Adams, Carol, The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. Continuum Press, 1990, p. 46.
  14. The Humane Society of the United States, “The Welfare of Cows in the Dairy Industry,” accessed 2014.    http://www.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/farm/hsus-the-welfare-of-cows-in-the-dairy-industry.pdf
  15. The Humane Society of the United States, “The Welfare of Breeding Sows,” accessed 2014. http://www.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/farm/welfare_breeding_sows.pdf
  16.  The Humane Society of the United States, “The Welfare of Animals in the Egg Industry,” accessed 2014. http://www.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/farm/welfare_egg.pdf
  17. Ibid.
  18. Farm Forward, “Factory Farming,” accessed 2014. www.farmforward.com/farming-forward/factory-farming
  19. Humane Facts, “Labels and Loopholes.” accessed 2014. www.humanefacts.org/labels-loopholes
  20. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, “Management of Waste from Animal Product Processing,” accessed 2014. http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/lead/x6114e/x6114e04.htm
  21. The focus here is on grain-fed animals as they represent the overwhelming majority of animal agriculture, especially in high-income countries. Grass-fed animals pose other threats related land use, deforestation, and greenhouse gases, which are beyond the scope of this essay.
  22. Humane Society International, “The Impact of Industrialized Animal Agriculture on World Hunger.” 2009, p. 3. http://www.hsi.org/assets/pdfs/hsi-fa-white-papers/the_impact_of_industrial_farm.pdf
  23. Rueter, Ryan, “Supplement Conversion Ratio.” Beef Magazine, November 3, 2009. www.beefmagazine.com/nutrition/1104-supplement-conversion-ratio
  24. Pimentel, David, “Livestock Production: Energy Inputs and the Environment.” Food, Energy, and Society: Third Edition. Taylor and Francis Group, 2008, p. 68.
  25. Cassidy, Emily et al, “Redefining Agricultural Yields: From Tonnes to People Nourished Per Hectare.” Environmental Research Letters, V. 8(3), IOPScience, September 2013, p. 1. http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/3/034015
  26. Searchinger, Tim et al, “Creating a Sustainable Food Future: A menu of solutions to sustainably feed more than 9 billion people by 2050.” World Resources Institute, United Nations, and World Bank, December 2013, p. V. www.wri.org/sites/default/files/WRI13_Report_4c_WRR_online.pdf
  27. This basic explanation of supply and demand principle holds constant a wide range of context-dependent factors that affect the overall price to greater or lesser degrees. Also note, food cost is more relevant to increasing urban populations than rural communities.
  28. Westhoff, Patrick, The Economics of Food: How Feeding and Fueling the Planet Affects Food Prices. Peason Education, FT Press, 2010, p. 97.
  29. ActionAid, “Fueling the Food Crisis: The Cost to Developing Countries of US Corn Ethanol Expansion.” Tufts University, October 2012, p. 6.  www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/ActionAid_Fueling_Food_Crisis.pdf
  30. Cassidy, Emily et al, “Redefining Agricultural Yields: From Tonnes to People Nourished Per Hectare.” Environmental Research Letters, V. 8(3). IOPScience, September 2013, p. 2-3. http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/3/034015
  31. The range of 6-16:1 represents commonly cited beef FCRs. Some meat industries report smaller ratios. Others, like researcher Vaclav Smil, report higher ratios. See also, “Creating a Sustainable Food Future,” p. 4 for extremely high inefficiency ratios based on new calculation methods. www.wri.org/sites/default/files/WRI13_Report_4c_WRR_online.pdf
  32. Rueter, Ryan, “Supplement Conversion Ratio.” Beef Magazine, November 3, 2009. www.beefmagazine.com/nutrition/1104-supplement-conversion-ratio
  33. Yacoubou, Jeanne, “Factors Involved in Calculating Grain:Meat Conversion Ratios.” Vegetarian Resource Group, accessed 2014. www.vrg.org/environment/grain_meat_conversion_ratios.php
  34. Ibid.
  35. Ibid.
  36. Searchinger, Tim et al, “Creating a Sustainable Food Future: A menu of solutions to sustainably feed more than 9 billion people by 2050.” World Resources Institute, United Nations, and World Bank, December 2013, p. 4. www.wri.org/sites/default/files/WRI13_Report_4c_WRR_online.pdf
  37. Cassidy, Emily et al, “Redefining Agricultural Yields: From Tonnes to People Nourished Per Hectare.” Environmental Research Letters, V. 8(3). IOPScience, September 2013, p. 2-3. http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/3/034015
  38. Lappé, Frances Moore et al, “How We Count Hunger Matters.” Ethics & International Affairs, Cambridge University Press, July 9, 2013, p. 5. www.ethicsandinternationalaffairs.org/2013/how-we-count-hunger-matters, interpreting FAOSTAT, “Food Balance Sheets” (Entry: World+2009), www.faostat.fao.org/site/354/default.aspx
  39. WebMD, “Calories Chart,” accessed 2014. www.webmd.com/diet/calories-chart
  40. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, “The State of Food Insecurity 2012: Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition.” 2012, p. 46. www.fao.org/docrep/016/i3027e/i3027e.pdf
  41. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, “Food Wastage Footprint: Impacts on Natural Resources.” 2013, p. 8. www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3347e/i3347e.pdf
  42. Xie, J. et al, “Social Consensus Through the Influence of Committed Minorities.” Physical Review E, V. 84(1), July 2011. http://pre.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v84/i1/e011130